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ⓘ 漢字



漢字
                                     

ⓘ 漢字

漢字 者,漢人屬文、言志之字也,蓋爲倉頡所造。千年以還,累有數萬,歸納其法,爲以六書,曰象形、曰指事、曰會意、曰形聲、曰轉注、曰假借。當世諸國盡屬拼音,獨漢字不然,誠爲大奇。

古人有云:「時有古今,地有南北,字有更革,音有轉移」。自三代以降,字體數易,迄今存者有五,一曰篆、二曰隸、三曰楷、四曰行、五曰草。有永字八法,側、勒、努、趯、策、掠、啄、磔者,習楷之始也。若夫漢字書法,同源乎畫,考究尤甚。其用亦多,書畫飾物,咸有其存。

漢字傳於日、韓、越。時皆無文字,遂直取漢字以記事。倭取字音,合於倭言,用日久,字形愈簡,遂成假名,與漢字錯落雜用。別以六書造字,稱和製漢字,「凪」「峠」皆爲此也。韓取字義,逕以記事。流傳既久,以漢字不合於韓人言,遂創吏讀,以漢字記虛字音。然漢韓之音,不盡相同,乃製數字以表,曰國字。「乭」「畓」「倻」皆爲此也。其後朝鮮世宗製訓民正音,猶用不廢,而有朝鮮臣奏請廢訓民正音。至近世,朝鮮自立天子,試廢漢字,不能盡去。此世二國人取名,猶以漢字。有司則定用字表,以減漢字之用也。其字稍異於中華也。於越方,其人據漢字,采形聲之法,自爲喃字,而漢字猶用。「 」「㗂」「 」皆爲此也。蓋知喃字,必先識漢字,既已足用,乃卑喃字。及法國降越,更用拉丁字書越語,漢字喃字俱廢焉。而今之中原、東瀛,各行簡體漢字,曰簡化字,曰新字體。

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