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ⓘ 北京市



北京市
                                     

ⓘ 北京市

北京 ,中華人民共和國所都,亦為直轄市。方二十四萬六千百五十八頃,口二千百七十萬有奇。建城凡三千餘年,歷朝建都亦八百餘年,為文史名城,與南京、洛陽、西安齊名。

                                     

1. 史

北京古稱薊,為燕都。秦為廣陽郡,漢屬幽州,亦為廣陽國都。魏復為廣陽郡治,西晉時為燕國都,東晉至北周為燕郡。隋大業三年改涿郡。唐武德年間復稱幽州,後屬範陽節度使。安史之亂時為偽都。五代劉仁恭亦僭號於此,為後唐所滅。入遼稱南京析津府,金海陵王亮遷都至此,易名為中都。元至元九年更名大都。

有明乃興,以應天為京師,更大都為北平府,燕王棣藩國在茲。洎燕王興兵靖難,旋以北平為行在、北京,永樂十九年後,稱京師順天府。有清定鼎中原,亦定都於此。

民國新創,亦以北京為國都,稱京兆地方,至民國十七年複易名「北平」。廿六年罹倭難。卅四年光復。然中國又遭國共內戰之劫,太平實未臨於社稷矣。歷四年之干戈,民國三十八年,中國國民黨退守臺灣,中國共產黨得大陸,立國曰中華人民共和國,都北平,復而易名北京也。

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